Saturday, November 9, 2019
Two Main Approaches to Learn About Nature in the Process of Science
In the process of science, scientist use two main approaches to learn about nature; Discovery Science and Hypothesis based science. With Discovery Science, scientist observe and describe objects, and with Hypothesis based Science, scientist make a hypothesis, make deductions and then test the predictions. In our everyday lives we use Hypothesis based science to solve many different problems. There is a criterion that is needed in order to have a hypothesis-based scientific study. To start you must have an observation and generalizations from discovery science. You must have questions and tentative answers to the questions. You must also have deductions that will lead you to predictions. And lastly be able to test the predictions to see if the hypothesis is falsiable. In experiments the use of control groups and experimental groups helps to control the variables. A large sample size is always a better choice than a small sample size to eliminate the possibility of chance. A case study of hypothesis-based science is both different from and similar to a case study from every day life. The two are similar in many ways. Both studies require that you make an observation as well as make a hypothesis from the observation. They are also similar in the fact that they both need a prediction, and both predictions needed to be tested in order to see if they are falsiable. The two are also very different from each other in other aspects. A hypothesis based science study needs to have two different groups of subjects; an example would be an experimental group and a control group. Hypothesis based science also needs to factor in sample size. With a case study from every day life there are a lot less factors that you have to be concerned with. The basic differences between the two are as follows: Everyday Life -Hypothesize using testable and falsifiable hypotheses -are predicted by using If-Then statements -Test predictions -Conclude the findings Hypothesis Based Science -The above steps but with tighter regulations -Experimental and control groups are required -Sample size must be large enough to generalize results -Must be an experimental variable An experiment of my choice that I researched is a double-blind study evaluating the long-term safety of varenicline for smoking cessation (WILLIAMS Kathryn E. ; REEVES Karen R. BILLING Clare B. ; PENNINGTON Ann M. ; GONG Jason) This experiment asses the safety of long term varenidine for smoking cessation. Subjects were chosen at random, and it was large sample size of 376. There was a control group and an experimental group. The experimental group received varenicline and the control group received a placebo. Subjects were monitored by weekly visits that after week eight turne d into visits of every 4 weeks. Subjects vital signs were documented each visit along with smoking status. All subjects were also provided with a brief counseling. The conclusions of this study were: Ã¢â¬Å"Varenicline 1 mg BID can be safely administered for up to 1 year. Varenicline was also a more effective smoking cessation aid than placebo throughout the study, supporting both its short- (12-week) and long-term (52-week) efficacyÃ¢â¬ I chose this study because I think that it fits the criteria and demonstrates the basic considerations in a good designed study. I can use my knowledge of the scientific method when reading medical journals to figure out the authenticity of the experiment. This will help me as a nurse to comprehend the research being presented on specific diseases as well as treatments.