Monday, May 18, 2020
The mass incarceration in the United States, has grown hand in hand with the well-disguised scheme of racialized social control that worked similarly to Jim Crow institutions. Howard Zinn describes social-economic structures that justified slavery, also prevented a class movement between poor whites and slaves that would threaten the power of the elite. The birth of white privilege and segregation of African Americans aided in creating Jim Crow policies and in the criminal justice and political spheres. American society is still systematized around preserving and safeguarding white privilege. The uneven path America took toward emancipation, freedom and partial radical equality resulted in the failure to pay black soldiers equally, the migration of freed blacks from southern states and the highly racist attitudes whites held toward blacks. Therefore Ã¢â¬Å"white privilege simply confers dominance, gives permission to control, and blank checkÃ¢â¬ to pass and implement laws that wo uld benefit one group over the otherÃ¢â¬ . Through a systematic approach reinforced by social stigma, ex-offenders are marginalized by society, media and deprived of access to a capitalist economy. Ex-offenders are legally discriminated and denied the ability to obtain employment, housing and public benefits. A simple correlation appeared among African Americans who were once forced into a Ã¢â¬Å"discriminated, second- class citizenship in the Jim Crow eraÃ¢â¬ . But in the period of colorblindness, it is no longerShow MoreRelatedMass Incarceration Of The United States1417 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn the U.S. there has been a rise in incarcerations, the numbers today are much higher than they were 30, 40 years ago despite the fact that crime is at historic lows. So what are we to make of the leap in time typically served for crimes in AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s society? Either the justice system was too lenient in the past, or the justice system is too strict now. Have we just now realized the real gravity of murder, or are we now overre acting? The United States currently over-incarcerates its citizens, prisonersRead MoreMass Incarceration : The United States1628 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMass Incarceration is a huge problem in United States culture. No other country in the world incarcerates its population the way that America does. Ã¢â¬Å"The U.S. incarcerates more people than any country in the world Ã¢â¬â both per capita and in terms of total people behind bars. The U.S. has less than 5 percent of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population, yet it has almost 25 percent of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s incarcerated population.Ã¢â¬ Worse yet the majority of the incarcerated individuals belong to a minority group despite not participatingRead MoreMass Incarceration During The United States1322 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMonroe Craver Mrs. Gallos English 3 Honors 30 March 2017 Mass Incarceration in the United States There are too many people in prison in our country and any people in prison today are non-violent drug offenders. The American war on drugs has targeted people in poverty and minorities, who are more likely to be involved in drug use. This has created a pattern of crime and incarceration and Ã¢â¬Å"...[a] connection between increased prison rates and lower crime is tenuous and small.Ã¢â¬ (Wyler). The prisonRead MoreMass Incarceration And Its Effects On The United States Essay1264 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMass incarceration is a major problem in the United States. Since the tough on crime movement that began to emphasize more punishment and creating new policies such as; three strikes law, truth-in sentencing laws, mandatory sentencing, and determinate sentencing, our prisons and jails have become overcrowded. The three strikes law increases the prison sentence of an offender convicted of three felonies or serious crime. Usually the punishment ranges from a minimum of 25 years to l ife in prison. TheRead MoreMass Incarceration And Its Effects On The United States946 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMass incarceration alludes to the investigation which ought to be clarified as exceedingly elevated pace of imprisonment among African Americans men and Latino males from troubling neighborhoods. Many will say itÃ¢â¬â¢s from poor families and when they take the males, it weakens the family even more. One of the main reasons for mass incarceration is to have control of the system and African AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s after slavery was annihilated. One main issue about mass incarceration would be that if an African AmericanRead MoreThe United States Faces Excessive Mass Incarceration1618 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe United States faces excessive mass incarceration. We have the largest prison population in the world and the second highest incarceration rate per-capita (1 in 100 citizens is behind bars). While you are certainly familiar with these statistics, I would like to emphasize that using incarceration as the primary response to social problems, as is happening today in the United States, impacts the incarcerated, their families and neighborhoods, as well as costing Maryland taxpayers millions of dollarsRead MoreMass Incarceration : A Major Problem Within The United States1695 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMass incarceration has recently become a major problem within the United States. Although crime rates have dropped since the 1990s, incarceration rates have soared. This trend is largely associated with increased enforcement of drug-related crimes. Unfortunately, though not surprisingly, this problem involves racial discrepancies when regarding these mass incarcerations. Incarcerations appear to be the most prominent throughout urban areas and the south, which happen to be the areas where AfricanRead MoreThe New Jim Crow : Mass Incarceration1199 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdid read her book The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration In The Age of Colorblindness. Michelle Alexan der stated that The most despised in America is not gays, transgenders, nor even illegal immigrants - it is criminals. That was an important quote since the stereotypical criminal in our racially divided America in most cases are those of color also known as blacks. This is why the criminal justice system in the United States promotes the mass incarceration of blacks that can be seen through highRead MoreMass Incarceration : A New Form Of Slavery Essay1555 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMass Incarceration: A New Form of Slavery in the United States Lorena P. Ambriz History 12A Abstract Starting in the 1970s, the rising rate of imprisonment came to be known as Mass Incarceration. What was once an average of 100 people getting imprisoned for every 100,000 adults, prior to the 1970s, has now grown to become more than 600 individuals per every 100,000 adults imprisoned. With only five present of the total world population, The United States holds an astonishing 25 percent of theRead MoreMass Incarceration Is Defined As The Imprisonment Of A Large Amount Of People1439 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAt the simplest level, mass incarceration is defined as the imprisonment of a large amount of people. However, that does not tell the whole story. The majority of people incarcerated are minorities, and although mass incarceration began as a system of unjust racial and social control, today it continues for many political reasons including government grants, swaying voter opinion, and for-profit prison revenue. The United States incarcerates more people, per capita, than any other nation in the
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Final Exam Essay Question #2 Question: Discuss the history of the prison system in the United States. Be sure to identify the various stages that the American prison system has gone through. Also identify what problems were present with each stage as you see them. Response: American prison system incarceration was not officially used as the main form of punishment in United States (U.S.) until around the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s. Before that time criminals were mainly punished by public shaming, which involved punishments such as being whipped, or branded (HL, 2015). In fact, President Lincoln codified the prison incarceration system in the Emancipation Proclamation that indicated no slavery would take place in America unless a person was duly convicted of a crime (paraphrased) (White, 2015). In this era prisons were used more as a place where criminals could be detained until their trial date if afforded such an opportunity. However, one of the main problems with this idea was the fact that the prisons were badly maintained, which resulted in many people contracting fatal diseases. Yet, according to White (2015) unethical and immoral medical experiments were also conducted on inmatesÃ¢â¬â¢ leading to health failures. Moreover, because everyone was detained i n the same prisons, adolescent offenders would have to share the same living space with adult felons, which became another serious problem in that adolescent were less mature and could not protect themselves in such environmentsShow MoreRelatedThe Prison System And The Prisons System Essay1258 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesrealize how much prison affects someone. In the US the prison system is completely different than the prison system in Denmark. After watching Prison State, I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t really know what the pros were of our prison system. I saw more cons than pros. I was completely shocked by the way that Denmark runs their prison system. The video confused me a bit, so I did some research and found an article that I understood a little bit better about DenmarkÃ¢â¬â¢s prison system. The US prison system is definitely moreRead MorePrison And The Prison System Essay1472 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdiscouragement for humans is through the prison system. Because of this, these humans or inmates, are sentenced to spend a significant part of their life in a confined, small room. With that being said, the prison life can leave a remarkable toll on the inmates life in many different categories. The first and arguably most important comes in the form of mental health. Living in prison with have a great impact on the psychological part of your life. For example, The prison life is a very much different wayRead MorePrison System1495 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPrison inmates, are some of the most maladjusted people in society. Most of the inmates have had too little discipline or too much, come from broken homes, and have no self-esteem. They are very insecure and are at war with themselves as well as with society (Szumski 20). Most inmates did not learn moral values or learn to foll ow everyday norms. Also, when most lawbreakers are labeled criminals they enter the phase of secondary deviance. They will admit they are criminals or believe it when theyRead MorePrison Authority And The Prison System947 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesprisoners possess zero authority in the prison system. They have no control over any aspect of their daily lives, but instead they are minded by prison jurisdiction. Prison guards and wardens possess the power to do anything that they please within those brick walls. This is an issue that society has been aware of for many decades; however, there has been little to no effort to change the conditions. Many prisoners have sought to inform society of how these prison authority figures abuse their powerRead MoreThe Judicial System And Prison System1594 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesare corrupt, how the police are corrupt, and how AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s whole legal system is uncontrolled. Ã¢â¬Å"I was innocent but was still jailedÃ¢â¬ ; Ã¢â¬Å"the cops only ta rgeted me because I was blackÃ¢â¬ ; and Ã¢â¬Å"How am I to live after ten years of imprisonmentÃ¢â¬ . ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s a need for a reformation or policy changes in how America handles the judicial system and prison system because, currently, itÃ¢â¬â¢s chaotic, unfair, and overwhelming. In the judicial system there have been many cases where people have done the same crime, butRead MoreFederal Prisons Systems1009 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIntroduction Traditionally, state-controlled prisons have been taken to be more dangerous as compared to federal prison system because they always house more dangerous criminals. Some of the states like New York tend to have their inmates spend most of their time during their sentence in maximum security prisons; however, federal prisons apply lower level security prisons for longer duration of incarceration (recently). While state prison systems is meant to house criminal like rapists, murderRead MoreThe Prison System At Parchman1032 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWorse than Slavery is a monograph that discusses Parchman Prison and gives various accounts of men and women who lived within the prison. Overall, Parchman was another way for white men to stay in charge and to keep black men oppressed. During this time, ninety percent of the prison population was African American. Although slavery had ended many years prior to the establishment of Parchman, it had many characteristics of slavery. The prison system at Parchman reflects themes of poverty, racism and reformRead MoreReforming Prisons : Reforming The Prison System Essay2140 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages Reforming our Prison System With the population of the United States prisons growing every day we need to evaluate if they are doing any good. Personally, I believe that we need to keep our prison system, but we need to take steps in reforming them rather than abolish them altogether. The United States has the highest number of incarcerated people than any other country in the world. We must sit down and look at other countries and see what they are doing different than the United States. In thisRead MoreThe Death Of The Prison System1142 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe prison system has seen huge changes from the American Colonel days to now. At first punishment was a way to inflict pain in suffering onto prisoners. By doing this it set an example to detour crime. Punishment throughout time has changed with the building of prison systems and labor being implemented. Today punishment is carried out much different than in the past. Punishment is way to keep order and discipline throughout society. Punishments focu s more now on rehabilitation then it does toRead MoreThe Punishment Of Prison System825 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages In principle, prison system plays important role in the society through reforming and punishing offenders sent to prison and preventing potential offenders. In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the number of in prisoners in the US prisons system, because prison is used as the primary correction facility for offenders while ensuring justice to offended (Guerino 20). Prisons comprise of offenders who are above the county jail level. Further, inmates comprise of people from different
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Clara Kang Shawn Bediako Honors 300 : Race, Science, Society 20 November 2014 An Analysis of the Model Minority Stereotype INTRODUCTION According to the 2010 United States Census, those that identify as Asian numbered more than 14 million people, approximately 4.8% of the entire United States population (SOURCE). Despite or perhaps due to being a relatively small population, Asian Americans are not exempt from stereotyping. While a stereotype does not technically have positive or negative connotations and is simply a widely held generalization of a particular group of people, they are often derogatory and convey negative impressions and attitudes. Many minority groups are portrayed in a negative and demeaning light: African Americans areÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦HISTORY OF ASIAN STEREOTYPES AND PERPETUATION The model minority stereotype is actually a relatively contemporary model, a strong contrast to some of the original portrayal of Asians. During the 1800s, Asians, particularly Chinese, were portrayed to be alien and insidious, these stereotypes strengthened by to fear of economic competition. However, the t rait of being hard working was present as far back as building of the transcontinental railroad. By World War II, these stereotypes did not vanish and were only reinforced due to Japanese involvement in the war, particularly those of being alien and other negative attributes. The term model minority was first coined by sociologist William Peterson in 1966 as praise for the achievements of Japanese Americans. Using that term, he proposed for other minorities to follow their example. (The Ã¢â¬Å"model minorityÃ¢â¬ : Bane or blessing for Asian Americans? 38) Since the coining of the term, popular press and media have propagated this stereotype (asians as stereotypes 109). In the recent years, television series portray Asian Americans as holding high-status positions or as nerds (beyond minority model 23) The model minority stereotype is still strong in current American culture, even after more than 50 years since the coining of the term. Qin Zhang conducted a study that tested for pe rception of different races and racial stereotyping. Subjects were asked to rate the likeliness of the race of the
string(173) " found in the literature survey is of course just a fraction of what is written about knowledge; however, these are still the things that are pointed out in the literature\." Journal of Knowledge Management Emerald Article: A critical review of knowledge management as a management tool Maria Martensson Article information: To cite this document: Maria Martensson, (2000),Ã¢â¬ A critical review of knowledge management as a management toolÃ¢â¬ , Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 4 Iss: 3 pp. 204 Ã¢â¬â 216 Permanent link to this document: http://dx. We will write a custom essay sample on A Critical Review of Knowledge Management as a Management Tool or any similar topic only for you Order Now doi. org/10. 1108/13673270010350002 Downloaded on: 23-04-2012 References: This document contains references to 78 other documents Citations: This document has been cited by 18 other documents To copy this document: permissions@emeraldinsight. om This document has been downloaded 12944 times. Access to this document was granted through an Emerald subscription provided by Shahid University of Beheshti For Authors: If you would like to write for this, or any other Emerald publication, then please use our Emerald for Authors service. Information about how to choose which publication to write for and submission guidelines are available for all. Additional help for authors is available for Emerald subscribers. Please visit www. emeraldinsight. com/authors for more information. About Emerald www. emeraldinsight. om With over forty yearsÃ¢â¬â¢ experience, Emerald Group Publishing is a leading independent publisher of global research with impact in business, society, public policy and education. In total, Emerald publishes over 275 journals and more than 130 book series, as well as an extensive range of online products and services. Emerald is both COUNTER 3 and TRANSFER compliant. The organization is a partner of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and also works with Portico and the LOCKSS initiative for digital archive preservation. *Related content and download information correct at time of download. A critical review of knowledge management as a management tool Maria Martensson E Introduction Over the past several years there have been intensive discussions about the importance of knowledge management (KM) within our society. Scholars and observers from disciplines as disparate as sociology, economics, and management science agree that a transformation has occurred Ã ± Ã¢â¬Å"knowledgeÃ¢â¬ is at centre stage (Davenport et al. , 1998). KM and related strategy concepts are promoted as important and necessary components for organisations to survive and maintain their competitive keenness. It has become necessary for managers and executives to address Ã¢â¬Å"KMÃ¢â¬ (Goodman and Chinowsky, 1997). KM is considered a prerequisite for higher productivity and flexibility in both the private and the public sectors. McKern (1996) argues that powerful forces are reshaping the economic and business world and many call for a fundamental shift in organisation processes and human resources strategy. The prime forces of change include globalisation, higher degrees of complexity, new technology, increased competition, changing client demands, and changing economic and political structures. Organisations are beginning to recognise that technology-based competitive advantages are transient and that the only sustainable competitive advantages they have are their employees (Black and Synan, 1997). This development has forced steep learning curves as organisations struggle to adapt quickly, respond faster, and proactively shape their industries (Allee, 1996). To remain at the forefront and maintain a competitive edge organisations must have a good capacity to retain, develop, organise, and utilise their employee competencies (Gronhaug and Nordhaug, 1992). E The commonality of the above studies is that they all regard knowledge as a critical factor for an organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s survival. However, knowledge has always been a valuable asset (Chase, 2000) and an important production component, but what is KM? Is it a new way to understand organising and organisations, is it a tool for exploiting knowledge, or is it just This study was supported by the European Commission, the OECD, the Swedish Council for Work Life Research, Nutek, the Swedish Ministry of Trade and Industry, and the Swedish Public Relations Association. The author Maria Martensson is a PhD student in the Stockholm E University School of Business, Stockholm, Sweden. Keywords Knowledge management, Knowledge, Strategy Abstract Over the past several years there have been intensive discussions about the importance of knowledge management within our society. The management of knowledge is promoted as an important and necessary factor for organisational survival and maintenance of competitive strength. To remain at the forefront organisations need a good capacity to retain, develop, organise, and utilise their employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ capabilities. Knowledge and the management of knowledge appear to be regarded as increasingly important features for organisational survival. Explores knowledge management with respect to its content, its definition and domain in theory and practice, its use and implications, and to point out some problems inherent in the concept. The main contribution of this paper is an extensive literature survey on knowledge management. Electronic access The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at http://www. emerald-library. com Journal of Knowledge Management Volume 4 . Number 3 . 2000 . pp. 204Ã ±216 # MCB University Press . ISSN 1367-3270 04 A critical review of knowledge management as a management tool Maria Martensson E Journal of Knowledge Management Volume 4 . Number 3 . 2000 . 204Ã ±216 another relabelling in the ceaseless flow of fashionable management concepts? The purpose of this paper is to map the contents given to KM, its definition and domain in theory and practice, its use and implications, and to point out some problems inherent in the concept. To determine what KM is, a review of the literature is necessary. Since it is not feasible to cover all the literature, the aim of the survey is not so much to summarise but to draw some conclusions about KM. The first step was to search for articles in databases using the keyword Ã¢â¬Å"knowledge managementÃ¢â¬ and the combination Ã¢â¬Å"knowledge managementÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"strategyÃ¢â¬ . The literature review is narrow in the sense that only studies using these keywords were included. Most of the literature in this review is of practical nature rather than theoretical (i. e. knowledgebased theory and competence-based theory). The emergence of KM seems to a great extent to be business driven (Carrillo, 2000). The limited number of keywords probably accounts for the skewed distribution of articles in favour of the practical-oriented articles. Another limitation is related to how the concept of knowledge is regarded. What is found in the literature survey is of course just a fraction of what is written about knowledge; however, these are still the things that are pointed out in the literature. You read "A Critical Review of Knowledge Management as a Management Tool" in category "Papers" In describing knowledge, it is not my intention to give a complete overview of the concept; rather, the description of knowledge is used as a tool for describing the concept KM. The paper is organised into three sections. The first section is devoted to the origins and domain of KM. The second describes KM as a tool for management, as an informationhandling tool, and as a strategic tool. In the final section, a critical examination of the concept and its implications is presented. I try to determine whether the concept of KM is a necessary tool for more efficient management, or if it is just Ã¢â¬Å"the emperor in new clothesÃ¢â¬ . Origins and domain of knowledge management Theoretical origins to knowledge management The field of KM can be seen as an integral part of the broader concept Ã¢â¬Å"intellectual capitalÃ¢â¬ (Roos et al. , 1997). Guthrie (2000) make is the following distinction between KM and Ã¢â¬Å"intellectual capitalÃ¢â¬ Ã ± KM is about the management of the Ã¢â¬Å"intellectual capitalÃ¢â¬ controlled by the company. However, too often the delineation between the two terms is unclear and seldom adequately addressed (Guthrie, 2000). The problem of the management of knowledge is not new according to Roos et al. (1997). The authors use the concept Ã¢â¬Å"intellectual capitalÃ¢â¬ as an umbrella term. Ã¢â¬Å"Intellectual capitalÃ¢â¬ in Skandia, a major insurance company, is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the possession of knowledge, applied experience, organisational technology, customer relationships, and professional skills that provide Skandia with a competitive edge in the marketÃ¢â¬ (Edvinsson, 1997). Within this descriptive framework, Skandia, Dow Chemical (Petrash, 1996), and many other companies (e. g. Stewart, 1997) prefer to make an operational distinction between human, organisational, and customer capital. Roos et al. (1997) suggest that Ã¢â¬Å"intellectual capitalÃ¢â¬ can be traced to two streams of thought, strategy and measurement. Within the strategic area, the focus is on studying the creation and use of knowledge and the relationship between knowledge and success or value creation. Measurement focuses on the need to develop new information systems, measuring non-financial data alongside the traditional financial ones. The conceptual roots of intellectual capital are depicted in Figure 1. With respect to this study, strategic planning and (operational) management of knowledge are important topics. The paper attempts to explore the creation and use of knowledge and the way it is leveraged into value. Key questions addressed include how is the use of knowledge translated into value? How can it be implemented? What important factors are needed for strategic management planning and implementation? A firmÃ¢â¬â¢s tangible and intangible resources, which are under the control of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s administrative organ (referred to as an organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s condition in Rutihinda, 1996), may be grouped into two main categories: firm resources and firm capabilities (Grant, 1991). According to Grant (1991), this designation implies that resources are inputs into the production process and the capability of a firm is the capacity, what it can do, as a result of teams of resources working together. 205 A critical review of knowledge management as a management tool Maria Martensson E Journal of Knowledge Management Volume 4 . Number 3 . 000 . 204Ã ±216 Figure 1 Conceptual roots of intellectual capital A differentiation between intangible and tangible resources, or an equivalent distinction, appears to be logically required. In a study by Johanson et al. (1998), the question of what is meant by intangibles was raised. The authors concluded that there is no generally accepted definit ion of intangibles. Intangibles can be studied from at least three perspectives (e. g. accounting, statistics, and managerial). The present paper defines intangibles from the perspective of managerial purposes, i. e. management on both the strategic and operational level. To summarise, whereas a classification of intangibles in terms of RD, software, marketing, and training appears to have been the dominant mode ten years ago, todayÃ¢â¬â¢s classification schemes are oriented towards distinguishing between external (customerrelated) and internal structures, on the one hand, and human capital, on the other (e. g. Sveiby, 1997; Roos and Roos, 1997; Petrash, 1996; Skandia, 1995). Influenced by the resource-based theory of the firm (e. g. Penrose), Luwendahl (1997) and Haanes and Luwendahl (1997) have classified a number of intangible resources from a strategic management perspective. Because there appears to be little consensus on the definition of Ã¢â¬Å"resourcesÃ¢â¬ , Haanes and Luwendahl refer to Itami (1987). Resources consist of: . . physical, human, and monetary resources that are needed for business operations to eventuate; and information-based resources, such as management skills, technology, consumer information, brand name, reputation, and corporate culture. After further elaboration on the concepts of intangible resources, intangible assets, capabilities, and competencies, Haanes and Luwendahl categorise intangible resources into competence and relational resources. The latter term refers to such intangibles as reputation, relations, and client loyalty, which are conceived of as being fundamental to the performance of the firm. Competence is defined as the ability to perform a given task and exists at both the individual and organisational level. Within the individual sphere, it includes knowledge, skills, and aptitudes; within the organisational sphere, it includes client-specific databases, technology, routines, methods, procedures, and organisational culture. The basic scheme s shown in Figure 2. Luwendahl (1997) takes the division one step further, since he divides competence and relational categories into the subgroups individual and collective, depending on whether the employee or the organisation is accentuated: Scholars of the Ã¢â¬Å"theory of the firmÃ¢â¬ have begun to emphasize the sources and conditions of what 206 A critical review of knowledge management as a management tool Maria Martensson E Journal of Knowledge Management Volu me 4 . Number 3 . 2000 . 204Ã ±216 Figure 2 Intangible resources ave been described as Ã¢â¬Å"the organizational advantagesÃ¢â¬ , rather than focus on the causes and consequences of market failure. Typically, researchers see such organizational advantage as acquiring from the particular capabilities organizations have for creating and sharing knowledge (Nahapiet and Ghoshal, 1998). in knowledge creation, storage, and deployment (Roberts, 1998; see also Grant, 1991). A firmÃ¢â¬â¢s distinctive competence is based on the specialised resources, assets, and skills it possesses, and focuses attention on their optimum utilisation to build competitive advantage and economic wealth (Penrose in Rutihinda, 1996). From the theory of the firm, two basic theories have emerged: resource-based theory and knowledge-based theory. Knowledgebased theory of the firm postulates that knowledge is the only resource that provides sustainable competitive advantage, and, therefore, the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s attention and decision making should focus primarily on knowledge and the competitive capabilities derived from it (Roberts, 1998). The firm is considered being a knowledge integrating institution. Its role is neither the acquisition nor the creation of organisational knowledge; this is the role and prerequisite of the individual. Knowledge resides in and with individual people, the firm merely integrates the individually owned knowledge by providing structural arrangements of co-ordination and cooperation of specialised knowledge workers. That is, the firm focuses on the organisational processes flowing through these structural arrangements, through which individuals engage Empirical origins to knowledge management DiMattia and Oder (1997) argue that the growth of Ã¢â¬Å"knowledge managementÃ¢â¬ has emerged from two fundamental shifts: downsizing and technological development. Downsizing During the 1980s, downsizing was the popular strategy to reduce overhead and increase profits; however, the downside to being Ã¢â¬Å"lean and meanÃ¢â¬ soon became evident (Forbes, 1997). The downsizing strategy resulted in a loss of important knowledge, as employees left and took the knowledge that they had accumulated over the years with them (Piggott, 1997). With time, organisations had come to recognise that they had lost years of valuable information and expertise and were now determined to protect themselves against a recurrence (DiMattia and Oder, 1997). This led management to undertake a Ã¢â¬Å"knowledge managementÃ¢â¬ strategy in an effort to store and retain employee knowledge for the future benefit of the company (Forbes, 1997). Organisations are now trying to use technology and systems to capture the knowledge residing in the minds of their employees, so it can be easily shared within the organisation. When stored, it becomes a 207 A critical review of knowledge management as a management tool Maria Martensson E Journal of Knowledge Management Volume 4 . Number 3 . 2000 . 204Ã ±216 eusable resource that can provide a wealth of competitive advantages, including enhanced organisational capacities, facilitating output, and lowering costs (Forbes, 1997). Technological development The technological development has heightened the interest in Ã¢â¬Å"knowledge managementÃ¢â¬ through two main sources: the explosive growth of information resources such as the Internet and the accelerating pace of technological change (Hibbard, 1997 ; Mayo, 1998). The recent IT development has affected both the lives of people and organisations (Mayo, 1998). The continual flow of information leaves us feeling overwhelmed and in a general state of disquietude (e. g. that we are missing important details) (Hibbard, 1997). DiMattia and Oder (1997) postulate that Ã¢â¬Å"knowledge managementÃ¢â¬ is an attempt to cope with the explosion of information and to capitalise on increased knowledge in the workplace. The emerging technological development enables global sharing of information across platforms and continents (DiMattia and Oder, 1997) and can serve as a tool within an organisation to use knowledge more effectively. Capturing a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s collective expertise in databases can help organisations to Ã¢â¬Å"know what they actually knowÃ¢â¬ , and then marshal and exploit this knowledge in a systematic way (Blake, 1998). The domain of knowledge management An essential part of KM is, of course, knowledge. To map the domains of knowledge, traits of the concept knowledge have been put forward based on the stream of research reviewed. The question of the nature of knowledge is extremely challenging. Although philosophers have been discussing the issue for several hundred years, the search for a formal definition continues (Emery, 1997). The definitions appearing in the literature range from studying knowledge from a broad perspective to more sophisticated definitions. The present review has resulted in two definitions of knowledge. Characteristics of knowledge The following taxonomy of knowledge has been expressed in the KM literature: . Knowledge cannot easily be stored (Gopal and Gagnon, 1995). Knowledge is something that resides in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s . . inds rather than in computers (The Banker, 1997). Unlike raw material, knowledge usually is not coded, audited, inventoried, and stacked in a warehouse for employees to use as needed. It is scattered, messy, and easy to lose (Galagan, 1997). Furthermore, Allee (1997a) has defined knowledge in terms of 12 qualities: knowledge is messy; it is self-organising; it seeks community; it travels on language; it is slippery; it likes loo seness; it experiments; it does not grow forever; it is a social phenomenon; it evolves organically; it is multi-modal; and it is multi-dimensional. To use the flow of data/information we must develop effective ways to make the input of and access to information easy (Mayo, 1998) and to sort the useful from the useless (Schaefer, 1998). We must develop systems where people are able to Ã¢â¬Å"navigateÃ¢â¬ effectively. This can be made by storing the information in different databases and make it possible for people to cross-reference and link documents speedily and easily (Mayo, 1998). Information has little value and will not become knowledge until it is processed by the human mind (Ash, 1998). Knowledge involves the processing, creation, or use of information in the mind of the individual (Kirchner, 1997). Although information is not knowledge, it is an important aspect of knowledge. The process begins with facts and data, which are organised and structured to produce general information. The next stage involves organising and filtering this information to meet the requirements of a specific community of users, producing contextual information. Next, individuals assimilate the contextual information and transform it into knowledge. This transformation process is affected by individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ experiences, attitudes, and the context in which they work. The final stage of the continuum is behaviour; unless information and knowledge lead to an informed decision or action, the whole process becomes invalidated (Infield, 1997). Knowledge should be studied in context. Knowledge is information combined with experience, context, interpretation, reflection, and perspective (Davenport et al. , 1998; Kirchner, 1997; Frappaolo, 208 A critical review of knowledge management as a management tool Maria Martensson E Journal of Knowledge Management Volume 4 . Number 3 . 2000 . 204Ã ±216 . 1997) that adds a new level of insight (Frappaolo, 1997). Allee (1997b) suggests that knowledge becomes meaningful when it is seen in the larger context of our culture, which evolves out of our beliefs and philosophy. The final characteristic is that knowledge is ineffectual if it is not used. Knowledge is a high-value form of information that is ready to be applied to decisions and actions (Davenport et al. , 1998). Sveiby (1997) has defined it as the capacity to act on information and thereby make it valuable. Knowledge management as a management tool KM is often described as a management tool. More precisely, it is described either as an operational tool or as a strategically focused management tool. Knowledge management as an information handling tool Within the field of KM (Figure 3), knowledge is often regarded as an information handling problem. It deals with the creation, management and exploitation of knowledge. Some of the literature fits into a definition of KM that consists of separate but related stages. The first two stages are invariably linked, both on abstract theoretical grounds and in practice. As the first step in the process, there is acquisition of information. In the second stage, the information is entered into a storage system and organised logically. Almost every definition of knowledge management includes the storage of knowledge (e. g. Yeh et al. , 2000; Blake, 1998, 2000; Mayo, 1998; Anthes, 1998; Cole-Gomolski, 1997a, 1997b, 1998; Symoens, 1998; Laberis, 1998; Nerney, 1997; Ostro, 1997; InfoWorld, 1997; Watson, 1998; LaPlante, 1997; Ash, 1998; DiMattia and Oder, 1997; Hibbard, 1997; Finerty, 1997; Bassi, 1997). KM is about acquisition and storage of workersÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge and making information accessible to other employees within the organisation. This is often achieved by using various technologies such as Internet and databases, and is a conversion of tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge (Papows, 1998). Once the information is stored in the various databases, the third stage is initiated. In this stage, the stored information is made accessible to as many employees as possible within the organisation (LaPlante, 1997). It is about distributing it into the hands of the right end users at the right time (Ostro, 1997) and where it can be of best use (Nerney, 1997). The final stage is about utilisation of information. This process begins with people sharing knowledge by talking and socialising with one another or by exchanging information in digital or analogue form (Laberis, 1998). Tacit and explicit knowledge Another way of defining knowledge is to make a distinction between Ã¢â¬Å"tacitÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"explicitÃ¢â¬ knowledge (Polyani, 1966). Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) make the same point in more precise terms: . Explicit knowledge is documented and public; structured, fixed-content, externalised, and conscious (Duffy, 2000). Explicit knowledge is what can be captured and shared through information technology. . Tacit knowledge resides in the human mind, behaviour, and perception (Duffy, 2000). Tacit knowledge evolves from peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s interactions and requires skill and practice. Nonaka and Takeuchi suggest that tacit knowledge is hidden and thus cannot be easily represented via electronics. Tacit refers to hunches, intuitions and insights (Guth, 1996), it is personal, undocumented, contextsensitive, dynamically created and derived, internalised and experience-based (Duffy, 2000). Nonaka and Takeuchi mean that knowledge is the product of the interaction of explicit and tacit knowledge. The process of creating knowledge results in a spiralling of knowledge acquisition. It starts with people sharing their internal tacit knowledge by socialising with others or by capturing it in digital or analogue form. Other people then internalise the shared knowledge, and that process creates new knowledge. These people, with the newly created knowledge, then share this knowledge with others, and the process begins again. Hibbard (1997) articulated this process as innovation. 209 A critical review of knowledge management as a management tool Maria Martensson E Journal of Knowledge Management Volume 4 . Number 3 . 2000 . 204Ã ±216 Figure 3 The stages of knowledge management Knowledge management as a strategic management tool KM and its implications are frequently discussed at seminars and conferences. The number of companies claiming to work with knowledge management is growing steadily. Several surveys have been conducted to determine how many organisations are working or planning to work with KM (Nerney, 1997; Hibbard and Carrillo, 1998; Cole-Gomolski, 1998). A recurrent problem with these studies is that the concepts (e. g. the use of KM) are seldom defined. This uncertainty has made it difficult to draw the desired inferences from the results of these studies. The surveys are attempts to either implement KM strategies or implement measurement systems on how to measure different intangible assets, or a combination of both. The central idea underlying a strategy is that organisations must adjust their capabilities (i. . their resources and skills) to a constantly changing complex external E environment (Teece, in Gronhaug and Nordhaug, 1992). Gopal and Gagnon (1995) put it succinctly when they maintain that effective KM starts with a strategy. Within a KM strategy, knowledge is recognised as an organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s most valuable and under-used resource and places the intellectual capital at the centre of what an organisation does (Ash, 1998). To start to create a KM strategy, an organisation needs to build systems for capturing and transferring internal knowledge and best practices (Allerton, 1998). The purpose, goal and expected outcomes of an organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s work with KM are many. For instance, KM can be seen as a way to improve performance (Ostro, 1997; Bassi, 1997), productivity and competitiveness (Maglitta, 1995), a way to improve effective acquisition, sharing and usage of information within organisations (Maglitta, 1995), a tool for improved decision making (People Management, 1998; Cole-Gomolski, 1997a, 1997b), a way to capture best practices (ColeGomolski, 1998), a way to reduce research costs and delays (Maglitta, 1995), and a way o become a more innovative organisation (People Management, 1998; Hibbard, 1997). A study by the American Productivity and Quality Center shows that 89 per cent of the participants in the study said that the core goal for knowledge management is to capture and transfer knowledge and best practices (Allerton, 1998). People Management (1998) reports on a survey in which individuals responsible for implementing KM strategy were interviewe d. The results indicated that the main obstacles to implementation were lack of ownership of the problem (64 per cent), lack of time (60 per cent), organisational structure (54 per cent), senior management commitment (46 per cent), rewards and recognition (46 per cent), and an emphasis on individuals rather than on teamwork (45 per cent). Among Ã¢â¬Å"Fortune 1000Ã¢â¬ companies the main problems with KM projects are a lack of focus and a lot of reinventing the wheel (Coleman, 1998). Based on an extensive multi-firm study by the American Productivity and Quality Center, hurdles to KM include the lack of a commonly held model for knowledge creation and dissemination and the absence of systems or processes designed to support and evaluate the effectiveness of KM (Ostro, 1997). Most firms with a KM system based purely on a technology solution have found that such an approach fails. Though technology may be necessary for KM, it appears never to be sufficient (Warren, 1999; Bassi, 1997). To successfully create and implement a knowledge management strategy, authors have suggested that certain critical elements must be included. The elements I have found to be of particular importance are the following: . the Ã¢â¬Å"so what? Ã¢â¬ question; . support from top management; . communication; . creativity; . culture and people; . sharing knowledge; . incentives; . time; . evaluation. 210 A critical review of knowledge management as a management tool Maria Martensson E Journal of Knowledge Management Volume 4 . Number 3 . 2000 . 204Ã ±216 The importance of the Ã¢â¬Å"so what? Ã¢â¬Ë questions A KM strategy should be linked to what the organisation is attempting to achieve. It is also important to articulate the purpose of the KM strategy. What benefits does the organisation expect to gain from their work with KM? How will it affect the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ work? (Klaila, 2000) The importance of support from top management The personnel function should focus on top managemen t to encourage processes that will promote cross-boundary learning and sharing. This includes helping to set up and, possibly, fund knowledge networks, as well as defining and developing the skills of learning from other people (Mayo, 1998). Organisations that have achieved the greatest success in KM are those that have appointed a senior-level executive to assume the mantle of full-time chief knowledge officer (Gopal and Gagnon, 1995). The importance of communication Saunders (in Ash, 1998) found that the missing factor in strategic management texts was communication. According to the consultants, a large proportion of the organisations failed to implement the strategies because of a lack of communication. Only a few companies designed a Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ communication plan to follow through on business strategies. After reviewing nearly 200 articles and conference proceedings on data warehousing, Keen (1997) was struck by how little is said about action Ã ± Ã¢â¬Å"realÃ¢â¬ people making Ã¢â¬Å"realÃ¢â¬ decisions to have a Ã¢â¬Å"realÃ¢â¬ impact. They do not look at how those real people become informed. The importance of creativity As Kao (1997) notes, a good strategy to work with KM issues is not enough. The author describes the link between strategy and creativity. A connection between these two allows organisations to survive in the future. The implications of business creativity will depend upon the type of fusion created between KM and the basic skills of creativity management (Kao, 1997). The importance of culture and people Successful implementation of KM is linked to such entities as culture and people. In a recent study where the importance of people, as opposed to technology and processes, was examined when implementing a KM strategy, 70 per cent reported that employees are the most important factor and 75 per cent reported that there should be an even greater emphasis on people (People Management, 1998). In the view of the best-practice organisations, people and culture are at the heart of creating a successful knowledgebased organisation. Several studies have shown that people and cultural issues are the most difficult problems to resolve, but produce the greatest benefits (People Management, 1998). The biggest challenge for KM is not a technical one Ã ± it can be integrated into any number of IT systems Ã ± but a cultural one (Forbes, 1997; Koudsi, 2000). It is the difficult task of overcoming cultural barriers, especially the sentiment that holding information is more aluable than sharing it (Warren, 1999; Anthes, 1998). This is supported by Hadley Reynolds, at Delphi Group, in Boston who released a study demonstrating that corporate culture was cited by 53 per cent of the respondents as being the biggest obstacle to deploying KM applications (Cole-Gomolski, 1997b). In another study (People Management, 1998), culture was seen by 80 per cent of those surveyed as the biggest obsta cle in creating a knowledge-based organisation. The importance of sharing knowledge The ability to share knowledge and collaborate are all too often missing in our organisations (Mayo, 1998). Efforts to deploy KM group-ware are frequently met with employee reluctance to share their expertise (Cole-Gomolski, 1997b). The likely reason for this is that employees are competitive by nature and may be more inclined to hoard than share the knowledge they possess (Forbes, 1997). On the other hand, a better process of sharing knowledge benefits the firm. This is shown in a study of 33 organisations conducted by the American Productivity and Quality Center (Alter, 1997). Ostro (1997) reports the results of an extensive multi-firm study by the American Productivity and Quality Center. He found that the main reason why knowledge was not being shared was that employees did not realise their experiences would be valuable to others. Mayo (1998) feels that recruiters should look for capabilities to share knowledge with 211 A critical review of knowledge management as a management tool Maria Martensson E Journal of Knowledge Management Volume 4 . Number 3 . 2000 . 204Ã ±216 new employees, as well as assessing what new knowledge they can bring to an organisation. Part of the introduction process for recruits should involve Ã¢â¬Å"capturingÃ¢â¬ their knowledge and experience. Although most new employees bring useful specialist experience with them, few people tap this rich reservoir of information. Meanwhile, the introduction should also be about passing on the experience of predecessors to new employees. Mayo states that: When people leave, the HR department asks for their company car keys and so on. Why not conduct a recruitment interview in reverse to retrieve information? nd that the pivotal role is played by culture; by an unquestioned, even unconscious, code that encourages knowledge sharing and cooperative behaviour (The Banker, 1997). The importance of time It is important to create time and opportunities for people to learn. One successful approach is to create formal learning networks so that the identification and transfer of effective practices become part of the job (Galagan, 1997). The greatest enemies of knowledge sharing are the time that is required to input and access information and the lack of motivation among potential users (Mayo, 1998). The importance of evaluation It is important to create a system for evaluating the attempts that are made to use KM. The evaluation system can range from informal attempts, such as talking to people about how Ã¢â¬Å"best practiceÃ¢â¬ is shared within the firm, or to the use of far more sophisticated tools to measure the outcomes. To summarise, to implement a KM strategy successfully both the creation and the leverage of knowledge must be taken into account. He also points out that there is an unwillingness to trust employees with information. A favourite excuse given by organisations that withhold information is one of Ã¢â¬Å"commercial sensitivityÃ¢â¬ , which reflects an unwillingness to trust employees with information. Salary surveys are a good example of this. In how many organisations are such data freely available to all interested employees? The importance of incentives One of the most important issues when working on a KM strategy is to create the right incentives for people to share and apply knowledge (The Banker, 1997). The personal reward systems must support the culture of sharing knowledge (Keeler, 2000; Mayo, 1998). To improve this process it is crucial to reward employees that contribute their expertise and to make sure employees understand the benefits of KM (ColeGomolski, 1997b). The organisations should ask themselves the following questions: Are the employees receiving signals that encourage the process of sharing knowledge? What criterion is used for promoting staff? Are instances in which the business has benefited from sharing learning publicly celebrated? Are mistakes made that could have been avoided if it had been known that similar errors had happened in the past (Mayo, 1998)? A problem with many reward systems and incentives for sharing knowledge is that useful knowledge comes from relatively low down in the organisation, from people who are not on incentive systems and probably respond much more readily to the feeling that they belong to highly motivated, leading edge, innovative groups of people. This probably means in the Discussion The literature and theories concerning the management of knowledge have grown remarkably during the past couple of years. Nevertheless, what is the contribution from KM? Is it business salvation or the Ã¢â¬Å"emperorÃ¢â¬â¢s new clothesÃ¢â¬ ? Because of downsizing, organisations have been forced to create systems and processes that decrease the dependencies on the knowledge residing within the individuals. To exploit knowledge more efficiently organisations are now trying to codify and store the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge, i. e. making tacit knowledge explicit and transposing individual knowledge into organisational knowledge. Those transformation processes have been made possible through the recent and fast development within IT. Because knowledge is largely tacit and individually owned, it is difficult to have charge of and control over the course of knowledge. The literature review suggests that the major contribution from KM concerns the effort to transpose tacit knowledge into explicit information, which 212 A critical review of knowledge management as a management tool Maria Martensson E Journal of Knowledge Management Volume 4 . Number 3 . 2000 . 204Ã ±216 will lead to greater possibilities to manage and control knowledge effectively. One major issue that has hardly been dealt with and, therefore, n need of further inquiry concerns how this process of translating tacit into explicit knowledge works. The management of knowledge may be examined from two theoretical perspectives. One perspective involves theories where the focus is on the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge; the second comprises theories wherein the knowledge itself is the centre of interest. Human capital is defined by Flamholtz (1985) as Ã¢â ¬Å"the knowledge, skills and experience of peopleÃ¢â¬ . Within human capital theories, the employee is regarded as the bearer of knowledge. Another perspective, in which knowledge is the centre of interest, is the knowledge-based theory of the firm. In such theories, the individual exists but the focus is more on knowledge than the individual. The two perspectives could be described as being either individualistic or holistic. From a holistic view the sum of an organisation is more than the sum of the individuals, whereas from an individualistic view, the sum of an organisation is the sum of the individuals (Hollis, 1994). Within the recent theoretical development (i. e. nowledge-based theories of the firm), the focus has shifted from an individual perspective to an emphasis on knowledge residing in the organisation as a whole, i. e. a holistic approach. Mayo (1998) noted that many companies have been managing knowledge for decades but that few companies, whether global or national, use these disciplines on a regular basis. One problem regarding knowledge and KM is to outline its content and domain. This literature revie w highlights the need to better clarify what we mean when we are using concepts such as Ã¢â¬Å"knowledgeÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"KMÃ¢â¬ . Carrillo (2000) argues that one can often find the most diverse labels applied to KM. There are also those who believe that term to be inconsistent because knowledge as such cannot be managed (Carrillo, 2000). The lack of clearly defined concepts has been explored in closely related areas (Johanson et al. , 1998; Grojer and Johanson, 1998; Power, E 1997). Also the boundaries of KM are fuzzy. To illustrate, what are the differences between Ã¢â¬Å"competitive intelligenceÃ¢â¬ (Fleicher, 1998), Ã¢â¬Å"intellectual capitalÃ¢â¬ and KM? Sometimes knowledge is clearly defined in the original source, but too often it is not. Because of the nature of knowledge, the attainment of a formal definition is unlikely. There is thus a need for clarification of what we are talking about whenever the word Ã¢â¬Å"knowledgeÃ¢â¬ is used. A large bulk of the present review is based on an IT perspective. The focus here is more on creating databases for storing information and making the information available, and thus the literature review focuses mainly on explicit knowledge (Warren, 1999). The first part of KM, the storage of information, is the one most often described. This is probably because the storage of information is the first and perhaps the easiest phase of KM. However, what is missing is how this information can be used and translated into knowledge and become a part of the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge base. The ambiguity of the distinction between information and knowledge has been a major source of difficulty and, in many articles, the distinction between information and knowledge is not clearly articulated. Duffy (2000) argues that technology vendors have contributed to this confusion. Every technology that ever had anything to do with digitised information is now a KM product, or even a complete KM solution. Knowledge is often used as something similar to information, but information and knowledge are far from synonymous. Tacit knowledge might have begun as information, but because it is processed by the human mind, it can be translated into explicit knowledge. Explicit knowledge is identical to information; it can be easily stored outside the human mind (e. g. in databases), but nonetheless it cannot be described as knowledge until it has been processed. The impact of KM is a complex field. If KM is used as a strategic tool the outcome is difficult to estimate. The problem to estimate the value of KM remains even if it is used as an operational tool. However, the operative perspective could be considered estimated by the organisation if the tool is used. If it had no value the organisations would not use it. Theoretically, it is easier to determine the value of KM. This is because knowledge, through downsizing, is a scarce resource. Another pertinent topic missing when the value of KM is described in the literature is costs. None of the articles reviewed discussed the connection between the costs in the 213 A critical review of knowledge management as a management tool Maria Martensson E Journal of Knowledge Management Volume 4 . Number 3 . 2000 . 204Ã ±216 organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s work and KM. That is, the values created by the management of knowledge are not related to the costs connected to the work. When analysing Roos et al. Ã¢â¬Ës (1997, p. 15) model on the conceptual roots of intellectual capital (see Figure 1), we see that all the strategic contributions on knowledge zero in on two essential features: the way knowledge is created and the way it is leveraged into value. Some concepts focus almost exclusively on one point or the other; e. g. he learning organisation concepts mostly examine the mechanism of knowledge development. However, other concepts such as KM are more balanced, focusing on both. The knowledge leverage class is divided into three sub-classes: KM, core competencies, and invisible assets. Likewise, the knowledge development class is divided into three subclasses: learning organisation, conversation management, and innovation . An organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s work with KM should focus on transposing tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge and see to it that individual knowledge becomes organisational knowledge. This can be explained not only by a need for organisations to better manage knowledge by establishing core competencies for individuals, judging success and performance indicators via recognition of invisible assets, but also for organisations to strive to become an innovative organisation and a learning organisation with a knowledge sharing culture. The final question raised in this paper concerns whether knowledge is always something good? Knowledge is assumed to be generally positive. However, it is untenable to assume that knowledge is always positive and good. Within the framework of knowledgebased theory, it is claimed that the only resource that provides an organisation with sustainable competitive advantages is knowledge. Nonetheless, knowledge as such will not have much value for the organisation in building its competitive advantages since only relevant knowledge can function in such a capacity. To see that the concept of KM will not just vanish as so many other management concepts have done over the years, it is important that KM is not regarded as Ã¢â¬Å"the Jack of all tradesÃ¢â¬ . If this happens, there is the risk that it will probably become Ã¢â¬Å"the master of noneÃ¢â¬ . How to cite A Critical Review of Knowledge Management as a Management Tool, Papers
Question: Discuss about hte Information Security and Privacy Issues. Answer: Introduction There are several resources engaged with the organizations that look in to the information properties and processes associated with it. Chief Information Officer (CIO) is the primary resource that is responsible for the management and monitoring of the information that is associated with an organization. There are several issues in terms of security and privacy of the information that have been observed and these issues have emerged as a major point of concern for CIOs and other security managers. It has become mandatory to develop the mechanisms and measures so that the security architecture is maintained and enhanced (Totterdale, 2010). The document carries out a literature review on the topic of information security and privacy and lists out the major issues along with the countermeasures that may be adopted. Information Security Privacy Issues There are a number of information security and privacy issues that have been observed and a lot of research work has been carried out to highlight and understand these issues. Network Related Issues Networks are an integral part of the information architecture as it is these networks that allow transition and communication of the information from one entity to the other. Cloud computing is also used as a technology in most of the business organizations in the present times that makes use of a number of networking channels and mediums. Information security and privacy issues that commonly occur are due to the networks as the agents of these attacks and threats. There are several network security attacks that take place that adversely impact the privacy and confidentiality of the information. Denial of service and other availability attacks are carried out with the aid of the networking channels that are flooded with unwanted traffic. This traffic blocks the service availability and adversely impacts the continuity that leads to the situation of a breakdown. In this manner, the users become unable to access the services that are offered by the organizations. This type of attack is of prime concern for the CIOs as it directly affects the system attribute as its availability (Pawar, 2015). There are a number of passive attacks that are also given shape with the help of the information networks. These passive attacks include traffic analysis, eavesdropping and monitoring of the networks. Through these measures, the privacy and confidentiality of the information is affected as it gets exposed to unwanted entities. Rushing attacks are also executed through the networking mediums in which the data packets are sent to the receivers repeatedly. The receiver assumes the transmission of the packets being done by the sender which is however done by the attackers to deteriorate the service quality. It is an advanced form of networking attack. All of these networking attacks can have varying degrees of impact as they may affect the various categories of information associated with the organization. Issues Related with Big Data The organizations in the current times are making use of Big Data technologies to efficiently manage the huge information sets that are related with it. However, Big Data has its own set of security and privacy issues that are required to be handled and prevented by the CIO and the information security team. Organizations make use of Big Data along with Internet of Things (IoT) to make sure that the services provided to the users and customers are as per latest technology. There are several entities that are involved in the process and the information is transmitted from one entity to the other. In this process, there are occurrences wherein the information is breached by the attackers and the privacy is affected as a result. In case of Big Data and the applications and service that are associated with it, there is a lack of transport encryption that is seen. It is because of this reason that the information is exposed to the attackers (Moura, 2015). There are also cases in which the alteration of the information contents is executed by the attackers which lead to the hampering of the information integrity. There are many messages and media contents that are exchanged in association with Big Data and these contents are altered through unauthorized means. Data mining is extensively used along with Big Data so as to achieve the desired results. However, data mining has its own set of data privacy and security issues that are associated with it. Social Networking Information Security/Privacy Issues Social networking is being used at a massive scale in the organizations that have allowed the organizations to achieve a number of benefits in terms of competitive edge, information collection and gathering, customer satisfaction and likewise. However, there are a number of information security and privacy issues that have been observed in association with the social networking platforms. There are employees and customers that are associated with an organization that put up a lot of information on the social networking channels. This information may be associated with customer preferences, reviews, employee viewpoints and likewise. The information on the social networking channels can be easily acquired by the attackers as most of this information is publically available. This information may then be analyzed by the attackers and transferred to the competitors. This may have an impact on the market performance of the organization as the user preferences and choices will be understood by the competitors (Kumar, 2013). There may also be information leakage and breaches that may occur that also lead to the hampering of information security and privacy. Legal, Ethical and Professional Issues There are various other aspects that are associated with information security and privacy. These issues are associated with the legal, ethical and professional aspects of the information and the same will be required to be handled by the CIO. There are a number of regulatory and Intellectual Property laws and policies that an organization must adhere to in association with the information that is associated with it. An organization deals with a number of other partners and third parties that may be multi-national and multi-cultural. These laws and policies may therefore vary and it becomes necessary to come up with an agreement stating the applicable laws and standards that the organization must comply with. However, with occurrence of information security and privacy attacks, these laws and policies are violated that lead to legal obligations as a result (Cassini, Medlin and Romaniello, 2008). There are various professional and ethical codes that are also defined for the organizations and it becomes the responsibility of the senior management and CIO to make sure that the employees of the organization adhere to the same. However, there are often violations that are observed. Insider threats and attacks are one of the most common categories of the information security and privacy issues. Employees that are engaged with the organization have the complete understanding of the information architecture that is followed and also have the access and privilege that is required in association with the information. These privileges are misused by the employees as the information is deliberately shared with unauthorized entities that later misuse the details that are provided to them. These actions are a clear violate of professional code of conduct and the ethical standards that shall be followed in the organization (Warren, 2012). Countermeasures to Information Security/Privacy Issues There are several countermeasures that have been defined in order to control and prevent the security and privacy issues that are associated with the information related with an organization. These measures shall be included and reflected in the information security policies and strategies that are followed in the organization and the CIO must make sure that the implementation of the same is adequately done. Network security attacks shall be controlled by the following measures There are many anti-denial tools that are available in the market that shall be acquired and installed in the internal and external networking channels to avoid the flooding of the network traffic (Sridevi, 2011). There is also automated intrusion detection along with intrusion prevention packages that are also available to make sure that the intruders do not enter into the networks and any such attempt is immediately reported. CIO, Information Security team, Networking team and senior management of the organization must carry out regular reviews and inspections to make sure that the networking channels are secured and protected at all times (Erlich and Zviran, 2010). The issues that are associated with Big Data shall be controlled and handled by making use of frequent back-ups and disaster recovery mechanisms. There shall also be advanced access control and identity management that shall be used to make sure that the attacks related with the violation of access and authentication are not executed. There are various anti-malware tools and packages that have been designed that shall be installed so that the malware of any form may not attack the information that is present in the organizations. Social networking channels are required and mandatory for the organizations. However, restrictions shall be applied on the information in terms of the rights to view the information that is posted by the users (Conteh and Schmick, 2016). Encryption of the information is a great measure that shall be used so that the attacks and threats associated with information security and privacy do not result in significant damage. There shall be ethical and professional trainings that must be given to the employees so that they may make sure that adherence and compliance to the standards is always maintained and followed. Legal policies and rules shall also be explained to the employees so that they adhere to the norms that are stated in the same (Hatwar and Chavan, 2015). Conclusion Information security and privacy are the two most important parameters that must be followed and it becomes the responsibility of the CIO to make sure that these attributes are always maintained. There are however various issues that may have an adverse impact on these two parameters in terms of the network related attacks, issues related with Big Data, social networking issues, legal, ethical and professional issues and many more. These issues may negatively impact the security and privacy of the information that is associated with the organization. There are likewise various countermeasures that have been developed to put a check and control on all of these categories of issues. These countermeasures shall be applied to make sure that the security and privacy issues do not take place and the security and privacy is always maintained. The CIO and the other resources engaged with the organization shall carry out the practices that do not violate any of the information properties. References Cassini, J., Medlin, B. and Romaniello, A. (2008). Laws and Regulations Dealing with Information Security and Privacy. International Journal of Information Security and Privacy, 2(2), pp.70-82. Conteh, N. and Schmick, P. (2016). Cybersecurity:risks, vulnerabilities and countermeasures to prevent social engineering attacks. International Journal of Advanced Computer Research, 6(23), pp.31-38. Erlich, Z. and Zviran, M. (2010). Goals and Practices in Maintaining Information Systems Security. International Journal of Information Security and Privacy, 4(3), pp.40-50. Hatwar, S. and Chavan, R. (2015). Cloud Computing Security Aspects, Vulnerabilities and Countermeasures. International Journal of Computer Applications, 119(17), pp.46-53. Kumar, D. (2013). Security Issues in Social Networking. [online] Available at: https://paper.ijcsns.org/07_book/201306/20130619.pdf [Accessed 13 Jun. 2017]. Moura, J. (2015). Security and Privacy Issues of Big Data. [online] Available at: https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1601/1601.06206.pdf [Accessed 13 Jun. 2017]. Pawar, M. (2015). Network Security and Types of Attacks in Network - ScienceDirect. [online] Sciencedirect.com. Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877050915006353 [Accessed 13 Jun. 2017]. Sridevi (2011). Wireless Lan Vulnerabilities, Threats and Countermeasures. Indian Journal of Applied Research, 3(9), pp.123-126. Totterdale, R. (2010). Globalization and Data Privacy. International Journal of Information Security and Privacy, 4(2), pp.19-35. Warren, E. (2012). Legal, Ethical, and Professional Issues in Information Security. [online] Available at: https://www.cengage.com/resource_uploads/downloads/1111138214_259148.pdf [Accessed 13 Jun. 2017].
Friday, May 1, 2020
Question: Discuss about theRole and Significance of Training and Development for Company. Answer: Training and development is the important element of the management function. Several companies see training and development as a basic element of the management plan. Training and development ensure continuous ability advancement of representatives working in the organization and habituates procedure for learning for creating information to work. This essay describes the role of organizational training and development in management. The study also explains the importance of training and development within the organization. The main aim of preparing this essay is to evaluate the information, provides types of approaches to training and development, goals of training and development in the organization, the hypothesis for training and findings of the discussion. According to Armstrong Taylor (2014), training and development is the creation which is concerned with company movement which main focus is to enhance the employees execution in the organization. Training and development include learning and instructing the employee to accomplish a remark in things being done any other way. Manager clarifies that training is a procedure which is considered to motivate the employees in order to achieve the stated objectives and this process enables the employees to perform in an effective way in the organization. Training is conducted for employees to improve their performance level and to make the representatives strategically unique, and also improve their aptitudes, learning, and attitudes anticipated that would accomplish operational effectiveness. Training and advancement demonstrate an essential chance to expand the information base of all employees, however, various organizations discover the opportunity expensive. In spite of the potential dr awbacks, training and development provide both the company as a complete and the people with favorable conditions that make cost and time an advantageous speculation. According to Beier Kanfer (2010), the major points which show the importance of organizational training and development is explained as follows is addressing weakness which states that the majority of representatives consist weakness in their office capabilities. A training program permits the organization to encourage individual capabilities which every representative must to develop. An advancement program passes on all employees to a greater amount so they all have same capacities and learning. This decreases weak connections inside the company who depend strongly on others to complete basic work assignments. Giving the basic training makes a general proficient staff with operators who can acknowledge control for each unique as required, work on teams or work independently without reliable help and supervision from others (Brown Harvey, 2011). According to Burke Noumair (2015), the second factor which shows the importance of training and development is improved employee performance which means that a representative who perceives the essential training is more capable to execute his or her job. He or she should know about the safety exercises and a suitable process for the genuine job. Training may establish the representatives self-confidence because he or she has the capability to understand their roles and responsibilities in the organization. This help may enforce employee to perform in a desirable manner and implement new ideas or plans in the organization. Providing training continuously to the employee also enable the business to perform well for the development of the industry. An employee of the organization who is capable and has the ability to take the business on the top of industry principles and also maintain the position as a pioneer and powerful rival in the business is only possible by giving proper traini ng and development to employees in the organization. The third point of importance is persistency which refers that a prepared training and development program affirms that employees will have enough involvement and learning to manage the issues occurs within the organization. According to Niazi (2011), the consistency is specifically relevant for the organizations fundamental policies and process. Each representative should be known about the prospects and process within the company. This involves security, gender inequality, and management duties. Putting all representatives through continuous training and development in these parts confirms that all employees at least have revelation to the information. According to Owoyemi et al. (2011), there are some approaches to training and development that enables the employees to perform well and in an effective manner. A first approach is a traditional approach which is also known as reactionary, driven by strategic conveyance of specialized aptitudes in blocks, classrooms preparing and where training is ignored as an occasion situated exercise. The second way to deal with training and advancement is a proactive approach. Proactive approach in the learning organizations adjusts every learning exercise to the corporate business methodology, and is focused is on making skills. The third way to deal with training and improvement is an active attention approach which assumes a significant part in learning by developing issues and situational problems under the heading of their facilitator. The trainees learn by asking provocative request, looking for answers, and translating distinctive recognitions made during the methodology. The dynamic lear ning approach has its persevering impact on learning since it helps in long term support and findings reliable learning is fundamental to advance. Individuals need to make sense of how to win in life and at work. Company need to ensure their employees continue adapting, so they can remain mindful of extended business requests in this way the organization can maintain competitive benefits. According to Saks et al. (2010), various practices are used in diverse organizations and in different industries. Thus, a requirement of training and development programs is depend upon the demand of the job description. However, it consists several kinds of methods used by the organization in the training and development. Kinds of training and development provided to employees are on-the-job training and off-the-job training methods. The points include in on the job and off the job training is as follows: Worker Development Programs are planned to cater particular goals, that add to mutually agents and also, authoritative viability. There are a couple of stages in the process of management improvement. These incorporate investigating organization objectives, surveying the affiliation's available administration assets, deciding individual needs, arranging and executing advancement plans and examining the suitability of these activities and evaluating the effects of getting ready on individuals nature of work environment.. The discussion of the significance of training and development states three major factors (Salas et al., 2012). The first factor states that training and development enable theorganization to identify the training and development requirements. Directors are relied upon to examine training and improvement need with each of their staff at any rate yearly as a component of the Performance Review and Planning process. The second factor is the internal training and improve ment sessions which arranges training for staff on all campuses sites and can set up particular sessions to address distinguished issues for a division or segment gathering of offices or occupational group. Registering Services also directs a continuous program of courses for staff and other association segments and offices offer instructional meetings for staff as necessities emerge. The third factor is outer preparing and advancement supported staff going to outside courses every once in a while the association may choose to send staff to particular outside courses. Contingent on the idea of the course and the time periods, selections might be looked for by the Director Training and Development from fitting administrators. According to Zwikael Unger-Aviram (2010), training and development objectives in an organizational development gives a sorts of training and development objectives recognized will depend upon the individual and hierarchical objectives perceived through the strategic planning process and the agreed examination procedure. In any event, the objectives may, as a base standard, assess the accompanying, for example, mission, values, key objectives, rise to circumstance arrangements, and expert development in the association. The speculation of the training and advancement in a hierarchical advancement help the company from various perspectives, for example, it enhances profitability, adequacy, and productivity of the taxpayer driven organization by improvement and enhances aptitudes, abilities, and capability of agents. It also empowers the workers to build up their learnings, abilities, and aptitudes with the goal that they may become more qualified by remembering the business goals and objectives and to perform errands of their present employment and progress to more capable positions. Training and development give for the development of supervisors able for executing and making feasible administration frameworks for the accomplishment of each State office's objectives and destinations. According to Phillips Phillips (2016), the examination of training and development research reveals that human resource part is to develop and execute an abnormal state structure for vital training and improvement. The planned strategy of training and development specifically advertise organizational objectives and points in order to expanding company execution. The findings emerged as an outcome because of the review are talking about as organizations should focus on consistently learning and occupation training, the manager must be involved with approach decisions for training and advancement, great training should offer opportunities for employees to develop and worker execution is increased through competitive advantage. From the above essay, it has been concluded that training and development play an important part in the management functions of a business. This essay explains the role and importance of organizational training and development. The study explains the several points of training and development which includes types of approaches, different types of training in the company, goals of training and development in an organizational development and the outcomes of the training and development analysis. References Armstrong, M., Taylor, S. (2014).Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers. Beier, M. E., Kanfer, R. (2010). Motivation in training and development: A phase perspective.Learning, training, and development in organizations, 65-97. Beier, M. E., Kanfer, R. (2010). Motivation in training and development: A phase perspective.Learning, training, and development in organizations, 65-97. Brown, D. R., Harvey, D. F. (2011). An experiential approach to organization development. Burke, W. W., Noumair, D. A. (2015).Organization development: A process of learning and changing. FT Press. Niazi, B. R. A. S. (2011). Training and development strategy and its role in organizational performance.Journal of public Administration and Governance,1(2), 42-57. Owoyemi, O. A., Oyelere, M., Elegbede, T., Gbajumo-Sheriff, M. (2011). Enhancing employees' commitment to the organisation through training. International Journal of Business and Management,6(7), 280. Phillips, J. J., Phillips, P. P. (2016).Handbook of training evaluation and measurement methods. Routledge. Saks, A. 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